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factor for their occurrence (Jeriček Klanšček, Hribar, and Bajt 2017). The Euro-
pean Agency for Safety and Health at Work (Evropska agencija za varnost in
zdravje pri delu n.d.) reports that occupational stress is one of the most im-
portant causes of health problems, affecting nearly a quarter of employees
in the European Union. Poor mental health can be reflected in many adverse
outcomes such as decreased productivity, absenteeism, reduced well-being,
and work capacity of employees (Uribe et al. 2017). Moreover, mental health
conditions are often a reason for quitting a job or even early retirement (Bajt,
Jeriček Klanšček, and Britovšek 2015, 26).

Teaching is a well-known context for generating many emotional de-
mands as it involves an ongoing and intense level of personal interactions
with students, parents, and colleagues. Therefore, teachers are a professional
category particularly exposed to psychosocial risk and burnout (Arvids-
son et al. 2016; Schonfeld, Bianchi, and Luehring-Jones 2017) along with
other people-oriented professions, such as human services and healthcare
(Maslach and Leiter 2016). According to Horgan, Howard, and Gardiner-
Hyland (2018), 25 of teachers describe their job as exhausting or extremely

Burnout can be defined as a psychological syndrome that develops in re-
sponse to excessive and prolonged work stress that has not been successfully
managed. It can be viewed as a process including different symptoms: phys-
ical/emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accom-
plishment (Maslach and Leiter 2016). The burnout process often ends with
aversion to everything, feelings of despair, and guilt (Korunka et al. 2010).
For teachers, burnout is associated with various mental health issues, includ-
ing psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, and depression (Desouky and Allam
2017; Gibson and Carroll 2021), more frequent physical health problems (De
Simone et al. 2016; Huyghebaert et al. 2018), a decline in self-efficacy (Capone,
Joshanloo, and Park 2019) and job satisfaction (Skaalvik and Skaalvik 2015),
and greater intention to leave the teaching profession (Rajendran, Watt, and
Richardson 2020). Moreover, teacher burnout is also linked to poor quality
of work and poor student outcomes (McLean and Connor 2015). Continued
stress and nonadaptive coping strategies in teachers have a negative im-
pact on teacher-student relationships, which can further contribute to worse
academic achievement and lower the quality of motivation among students
(Madigan and Kim 2021). In turn, poor interpersonal relationships between
the teacher and students have adverse effects on the teacher’s mental health
and well-being (Herman, Hickmon-Rosa, and Reinke 2018; Spilt, Koomen, and
Thijs 2011).

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